Laboratory for Simulation Development

...because open source matters

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LSD in action

LSD is a general purpose language, without any specific built-in model, and can be used to implement any code. Technically, it may even be used for a degenerate model containing only one single variable whose equation is a thousand line C++ code.

However, the major advantage of LSD is the simplicity to create a model by defining elements in generic ways, without the need to specify the actual code for a program. In particular, these are helpful features in agen-based models with strong micro-macro interactions.

Given my background LSD has been used mainly for economic models. This is the list of my works based on LSD models:


  • T. CIARLI, A. LORENTZ, M. SAVONA, and M. VALENTE, "The Effect of Consumption and Production Structure on Growth and Distribution. A Micro to Macro Model", METROECONOMICA. In press.
  • M. BLEDA and M. VALENTE, ``Graded eco-labels: A demand-oriented approach to reduce pollution,'' TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE. In press.
  • T. CIARLI, R. LEONCINI, S. MONTRESOR, and M. VALENTE, ``Technological change and the vertical organization of industries,'' JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY ECONOMICS, vol. 18, pp. 367-387, 2008.
  • T. CIARLI, R. LEONCINI, S. MONTRESOR, and M. VALENTE, ``Innovation and competition in complex environments,'' INNOVATION, vol. 3-4, 2007.
  • S. BRUSONI, L. MARENGO, A. PRENCIPE, and M. VALENTE, ``The value and costs of modularity: a problem-solving perspective,'' EUROPEAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 4, pp. 121-132, 2007.
  • M.VALENTE, "Book Review: Applied Evolutionary Economics: New Empirical Methods and Simulation Techniques, by P.P.Saviotti", JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATIONS, vol.9(4), 2006.
  • G. FAGIOLO, L. MARENGO, and M. VALENTE, ``Population learning in a model with rugged payoff landscapes and endogenous networks,''COMPUTATIONAL ECONOMICS, vol. 24-4, pp. 383-408, 2005.
  • G. FAGIOLO and M. VALENTE, ``Minority games, local interactions, and endogenous networks,'' COMPUTATIONAL ECONOMICS, vol. 25, pp. 41-57, 2005.
  • G. FAGIOLO, L. MARENGO, and M. VALENTE, ``Endogenous networks in random population games,'' MATHEMATICAL POPULATION STUDIES, vol. 11-2, pp. 121-147, 2004.
  • M. VALENTE and E. S. ANDERSEN, ``A hands-on approach to evolutionary simulation: Nelson and winter models in the laboratory for simulation development,'' E-JEMED, vol. 1, 2002.
  • M. VALENTE, ``Comments on the paper equilibrium selection via adaptation: Using genetic programming to model learning in a coordination, by chen, duffy and yeh,'' E-JEMED, vol. 1, 2002.


  • L. MARENGO, C. PASQUALI, and M. VALENTE, Modularity: Understanding the Development and Evolution of Complex Natural Systems, ch. Decomposability and modularity of economic interactions. CAMBRIDGE, MA - USA: MIT Press, 2005.
  • G. FAGIOLO, L. MARENGO, and M. VALENTE, Nonlinear Dynamics and Heterogenous Interacting Agents, ch. Population Learning in Random Games with Endogenous Network Formation. BERLIN - DEU: Springer, 2005. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems.
  • G. FAGIOLO, L. MARENGO, and M. VALENTE, Eterogeneità degli agenti economici e interazione sociale: teorie e verifiche empiriche, ch. Formazione Endogena di Reti in Giochi di Popolazione Casual. BOLOGNA - ITA: Il Mulino, 2005.
  • T. CIARLI and M. VALENTE, Clusters Facing Competition: The Importance of External Linkages, ch. Firms Interactions and industrial Development: A Simulation Model. GBR: Ashgate, 2005.
  • T. CIARLI and M. VALENTE, Industry and Labor Dynamics: The Agent-Based Computational Economics Approach. Proceedings of the Wild@ace 2003 Conference, ch. A Generalised Computational Model of Firms Production and Interactions: Emergent Network Structure and Industrial Development. SINGAPORE: World Scientific, 2004.
  • K. FRENKEN, L. MARENGO, and M. VALENTE, Computational Techniques for Modelling Learning in Economics, ch. Interdependencies, Nearly-decomposability and Adaptation, pp. 145-165. DORDRECHT - NLD: Kluwer, 1999.

Working papers 

  • K. FRENKEN, G. SILVERBERG, and M. VALENTE, "A percolation model of the product life cycle", UNU-MERIT working papers series, 2008-073, Maastricht 2008.
  • M. VALENTE, "Pseudo-NK: an enhanced model of complexity", LEM working papers 2008/26, Pisa 2008
  • M. VALENTE, "Laboratory for Simulation Development - LSD", LEM working papers 2008/12, Pisa 2008.
  • T. CIARLI, A. LORENTZ, M. SAVONA, M. VALENTE, "Structural Change of Production and Consumption: A Micro to Macro Approach to Economic Growth and Income Distribution" LEM working papers 2008/08, Pisa 2008.
  • T. CIARLI,  M. VALENTE, "Production Structure and Economic Fluctuations" LEM working papers 2007/02, Pisa 2007.
  • M.DI MAIO, M.VALENTE, "Uncertainty, optimal specialization and growth", LEM working papers, 2006/5, Pisa 2006.



Last Updated on Sunday, 01 March 2009 14:41